Napoleon’s Russian campaign of 1812

This is Charles Minard’s Carte figurative des pertes successives en hommes de l’Armée Française dans la campagne de Russie 1812-1813, a flow map published in 1869 depicting Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign of 1812. The graph displays several variables in a single two-dimensional image:

  • the army’s location and direction, showing where units split off and rejoined
  • the declining size of the army
  • the low temperatures during the retreat

(Information adapted from Wikipedia’s entry on Charles Minard.)

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